What is Prostrate Cancer ?
It is a form of cancer that develops in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. The cancer cells may metastasize (spread) from the prostate to other parts of the body, particularly in the bones and lymph nodes. It causes pain, difficulty in urinating, problems during sexual intercourse, and or erectile dysfunction. Other symptoms also potentially develop during later stages of the disease.
Rates of detection of prostate cancers vary widely across the world, with South and East Asia detecting less frequently than in Europe, and especially the United States. Prostate cancer tends to develop in men over the age of fifty and although it is one of the most prevalent types of cancer in men, many never have symptoms, undergo no therapy, and eventually die of other causes. This is because cancer of the prostate is, in most cases, slow-growing, symptom-free, and since men with the condition are older they often die of causes unrelated to the prostate cancer, such as heart/circulatory disease, pneumonia, other unconnected cancers, or old age.
Many factors-including genetics and diet, have been implicated in the development of prostate cancer. The presence of prostate cancer may be indicated by symptoms, examination, prostate (PSA) or biopsy. There is controversy about the accuracy of the PSA test and the value of screening. Suspected prostate cancer is typically confirmed by taking a biopsy of the prostate and examining it under a microscope. Further tests, such as CT scans and bone, may be performed to determine whether prostate cancer has spread.
Treatment options for prostate cancer with intent to cure are primarily surgery, radiation therapy, and proton therapy. Other treatments, such as hormonal therapy, chemotherapy, cryosurgery, and high (HIFU) also exist, depending on the clinical scenario and desired outcome.
The age and underlying health of the man, the extent of metastasis, appearance under the microscope, and response of the cancer to initial treatment are important in determining the outcome of the disease. The decision whether or not to treat localized prostate cancer (a tumor that is contained within the prostate) with curative intent is a patient trade-off between the expected beneficial and harmful effects in terms of patient survival and quality of life.
What is Biopsy ?
A biopsy is a medical test involving the removal of cells or tissues for examination. It is the medical removal of tissue from a living subject to determine the presence or extent of a disease. The tissue is generally examined under a microscope by a pathologist, and can also be analyzed chemically. When an entire lump or suspicious area is removed, the procedure is called an excisional biopsy. When only a sample of tissue is removed with preservation of the histological architecture of the tissue’s cells, the procedure is called an incisional biopsy or core biopsy. When a sample of tissue or fluid is removed with a needle in such a way that cells are removed without preserving the histological architecture of the tissue cells, the procedure is called a needle aspiration biopsy.
(source HT- 1st May, 2010)
Prostate cancer develops in a gland in the male reproductive system, from where it can spread to the bones and lymph nodes. It affects men after 50 years of age and is the second most common cancer after skin in the United States.
In India, it ranks fourth after cancers of the head and neck, lungs and gastrointestinal tracts.
Unlike standard vaccines — such as those for cervical cancer, measles or polio — given to healthy people to prevent disease, the new vaccine makes a patient’s immune system treat cancer by attacking the tumour.
How It Works:
- Provenge is personalized for each patient
- The Patient’s White Blood Cells are collected and certain Immune Cells separated
- The Cells are infused back into the Patient three times over the course of a Month.
- In a study of 512 patients with Advanced Cancer, Provenge increase their lives by 4 months boosting Average Survival from 21.7 months to 25.8 months.
- The treatment costs $93.000 (Rs.41lac, INR)